A little-known free website can help you locate old documents and manuscript items available in over 1,500 different archival collections. It’s called ArchiveGrid, and it currently includes close to 5 million archival item entries! A highly flexible grid system is at the heart of all good publication designs. Grids control the flow of your content, giving hierarchy to you design, creating an intuitive design that is pleasing to the eye an easy to understand. Grid systems are used in virtually all print design work from magazine design to posters and leaflets. The best designs utilise the grid, but aren't afraid to break the rules, the best designs abandon the grid when required to deliver extra impact and break the.
Genkō yōshi (原稿用紙, 'manuscript paper') is a type of Japanese paper used for writing. It is printed with squares, typically 200 or 400 per sheet, each square designed to accommodate a single Japanese character or punctuation mark. Genkō yōshi may be used with any type of writing instrument (pencil, pen or ink brush), and with or without a shitajiki (protective 'under-sheet').
While in the past genkō yōshi was used for all types of manuscript writing (essays, creative writing, news writing and so on), in most cases the advent of the computer means that this is now the preferred medium, although some Japanese word processing software still includes a genkō yōshi template. However, genkō yōshi is still very widely used, especially by students. Primary and secondary students in particular are required to hand in assignments written on genkō yōshi, and essays for school entrance examinations are also written on the paper, making knowledge of the correct way to use genkō yōshi essential.
It is also the main form of rule used by Taiwanese students when writing Taiwanese Mandarin, where it is called 原稿紙 (pinyin: yuángǎo zhǐ). In Taiwan, students use the thin vertical column to transcribe Bopomofo pronunciation.Some programs of Japanese as a foreign language also require or encourage their adult students to use genkō yōshi for practice or formal assignments or both, as use of the paper helps students to learn correct spacing when writing vertically.
Manuscript Grid. Also known as a single column grid or a block grid, the manuscript grid is the. Manuscript lines. OptiMA has a number of dry erase options and different writing surfaces with permanent penmanship lines or manuscript lines printed onto them. We recognized that a lot of the manuscript boards and prints available in the market place really didn't work because they didn't leave a space between the bottom of one set and the top of the next set or row so there was no where for.
Genkō yōshi is used for vertical writing (although by turning the page sideways it can be used for horizontal writing too), and is most commonly printed in columns of twenty squares, with ten columns per page (each B4-sized sheet of genkō yōshi comprising two pages), but other configurations are also available. Between consecutive columns of squares is a blank space used for writing furigana (ruby characters), bōten (a type of punctuation mark used for giving emphasis) or other marks.
In the centre of each two-page spread of genkō yōshi (between the two sets of ten columns) is a wide blank space, allowing the sheets to be bound or folded.Correct use of genkō yōshi (400 square sheet shown):
- Title on the 1st column, first character in the 4th square.
- Author's name on the 2nd column, with 1 square between the family name and the given name, and 1 empty square below.
- First sentence of the essay begins on the 3rd column, in the 2nd square. Each new paragraph begins on the 2nd square.
- Subheadings have 1 empty column before and after, and begin on the 3rd square of a new column.
- Punctuation marks normally occupy their own square, except when they will occur at the top of a column, in which case they share a square with the last character of the previous column.
Prior to the Edo period, handwriting was often calligraphic and written materials often made use of scrolls, which would have made the guidelines printed on genkō yōshi a hindrance, although paper was sometimes printed with vertical lines designed to keep columns of vertical writing straight.
Genkō yōshi came into common use in the middle of the Meiji period with the rising importance of newspapers and magazines, and the attendant need to count characters precisely.
Rules for use
While genkō yōshi can be used for horizontal writing, it is most commonly used for vertical writing, which is read from right to left. The first page is therefore the right hand side of the sheet. The title is placed on the first column, usually leaving two or three leading blank spaces. The author's name is placed on column 2, with an empty square or two below and an empty square between the given and family names. The first sentence begins on column 3 or 4.
In Japanese, each paragraph, including the first one, is usually indented by a square. However, when writing quoted text such as direct speech, the opening quotation mark (﹁ or ﹃ in vertical writing) is placed in the first square of the column.
Like printed vertical Japanese, full stops, commas, and small kana are placed in the top right corner of their own square. All punctuation marks, other marks (such as parentheses), and small kana usually occupy their own square, unless this would place them at the top of a new column, in which case they share the last square of the previous column with the character in that square. (This is the kinsoku shori rule.) A full stop followed directly by closing quotation mark are written in one square. A blank square is left after non-Japanese punctuation marks (such as exclamation points and question marks). Ellipses and dashes use two squares.
Furigana are written to the right of the relevant character, in small print.
Words, phrases, and sentences in Western characters (such as Roman letters) except acronyms like USA and NATO are often, but not always, written vertically by turning the page a quarter turn counterclockwise, so that when the page is viewed normally they are sideways. Each square can accommodate two Western characters.
Genkō yōshi and manga
Manga artists and other illustrators also use a special type of genkō yōshi called mangagenkō yōshi. This paper is printed with very light blue lines which do not show up when copied, and there are several varieties, each with a different type of printed grid. These are also available in different weights and sizes.
- Gunsho Ruijū - Genkō yōshi was born from this books' printing plate.
- ^'原稿用紙の使い方 (How to use Genkō yōshi)' (in Japanese). Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Seward, Jack. Easy Japanese: A Guide to Spoken and Written Japanese. 1993 Passport Books, Chicago.
- New College Japanese-English Dictionary, 5th Edition, Kenkyusha
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But things can quickly get fuzzy. Grids come in all shapes and sizes, and they have a long and complex history, stretching back to humankind’s very earliest manuscripts.
In this piece, we’re first going to bring some clarity by defining what a grid is, and then look at some of the most important types of grid used in print, web, and UI design. We’ll cover how grid use started with early manuscripts and the rise of the printed book, before moving on to developments in the 20th century, and even rebellion against grid systems.
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